Education System in Argentina
The education system is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces, federal districts and private institutions. The Ministry of Education is in charge of setting basic national guidelines, while curricular decisions are generally made at the provincial level.
The education system is composed of four levels: Early Childhood Education, Primary Education, Secondary Education and Higher Education.The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels. Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.
The Structure of the Educational System Basic education comprises:
-Pre-school level: For children from 3 to 5 years old; only Kinder 5 is compulsory. The purpose of this level is to stimulate maturity, social integration, and the bond between family and the educational institution. All the pre-school settlements are authorized and monitored by the jurisdictional educational authorities.
-General Basic Education Level (EGB): Three cycles of three years each. Some of its objectives are “to achieve the acquisition and instrumental command of socially significant values: oral and written communication, language and math operations, natural sciences and ecology, exact sciences, technology and informatics, social sciences and national, Latin-American, and universal culture.”
-Polimodal Level: three years (from 15 to 17/18 years old).
For all these levels, the school year begins in early March and ends in late November, and, according to the Federal and provincial law, the government must guarantee of 180 days of instruction. A day of instruction comprises at least 4 hours, where most of public schools have 20 hours a week for the whole curriculum, whereas private schools (particularly in large cities) are increasingly offering full-day schooling (even though many of these private schools are not bilingual).
The Argentine grading scale is from 1 to 10. “Good” GPAs vary considerably depending on the field and institution.Grading System
10 Sobresaliente (Outstanding)
8-9 Distinguido (Distinguished)
6-7 Bueno (Good)
4-5 Aprobado (Pass)
2-3 Insuficiente (Insufficient)
0-1 Reprobado (Fail)
In addition to the Basic Education, the system includes:
Tertiary Level: it includes non-university and university studies that offer professional and academic education at undergraduate level. The academic autonomy and economic autarchy of universities is stated.
-Graduate Level: it is under the responsibility of universities and academic, scientific, and professional institutions of renowned level. The universities are national, autarchic and autonomous institutions, while National Government is basically responsible for the financing.
-Special Regimes: they mainly comprise special education, adult education, artistic education, and non-formal education (the reform has explicitly incorporated these regimes into the system and recognized their importance.)
The teaching degree in Argentina is non-university and emphasizes the pedagogical rather than the content aspects.
According to the most recent publication of educational statistics (2005), there are in Argentina 12.2 millions of students, what represents approximately 30% of the total population. Of this total, 81.3% are in the Basic Level (up to secondary level), what is the object of study in this paper. 98% of the students in the age range of primary level (EGB 1 and 2) are enrolled in school; whereas in EGB3 and Polimodal, this ratio is 78.4% and 53.6%, respectively.
The literacy rate is 97%, above the average for Latin America (89.9%) and upper-middle income (UMI) countries (94.3%). The school life expectancy (or years of schooling) is 15.4 years, again over the average for Latin-America and UMI countries (13.1 and 13 years respectively).
Education expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2012)
Country comparison to the world: N°32
Age 10 and over can read and write
Total population: 98.1%
Female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy
Primary to tertiary education
Total: 18 years
Male: 17 years
Female: 19 years (2012)